Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (2024)

Ottoman sultans in orderThe Ottoman Empire is a treasure that contains many lessons, both in the lands it ruled between 1299 and 1922, and when we look at the past from today to yesterday.

Ottoman Sultans in order

  • Osman Gazi (1299 – 1326)
  • Orhan Gazi (1326 – 1359)
  • I. Murad (1359 – 1389)
  • Bayezid I – Yıldırım Bayezid (1389 – 1402)
  • I. Mehmed (1413 – 1421)
  • II. Murad (1421 – 1451)
  • Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1451 – 1481)
  • II. Bayezid (1481 – 1512)
  • Yavuz Sultan Selim (1512 – 1520)
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566)
  • II. Selim (1566 – 1574)
  • III. Murad (1574 – 1595)
  • III. Mehmed (1595 – 1603)
  • I. Ahmed (1603 – 1617)
  • I. Mustafa (1617 – 1618 / 1622 – 1623)
  • Young Osman (1618 – 1622)
  • IV. Murad (1623 – 1640)
  • İbrahim (1640 – 1648)
  • IV. Mehmed (1648 – 1687)
  • II. Solomon (1687 – 1691)
  • II. Ahmed (1691 – 1695
  • II. Mustafa (1695 – 1703)
  • III. Ahmed (1703 – 1730)
  • I. Mahmud (1730 – 1754)
  • III. Osman (1754 – 1757)
  • III. Mustafa (1757 – 1774)
  • Abdulhamid I (1774 – 1789)
  • III. Selim (1789 – 1807)
  • IV. Mustafa (1807 – 1808)
  • II. Mahmud ( 1808 – 1839)
  • Abdulmecid (1839 – 1861)
  • Abdulaziz (1861 – 1876)
  • V. Murad (May 30, 1876 – August 31, 1876)
  • II. Abdulhamid (1876 – 1909)
  • Mehmed Reşad ( 1909 – 1918)
  • Mehmed Vahdeddin (1918 – 1922)

We shared with you brief information about the periods and lives of the Ottoman Sultans, respectively.

Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (1)

Sultans in the Ottoman Foundation Period, respectively

Osman Gazi (1299 – 1326)

Osman Gazi was born in Söğüt in 1258. His father is Ertuğrul Gazi and his mother is Halime Hatun.

Osman Gazi was only 23 years old when he came under the rule of the Kayı Tribe in Sögüt in 1281. He was very good at riding a horse, using a sword and fighting. He got married to Mal Hatun, the daughter of Ömer Bey, one of the elders of the tribe. And from this marriage, his son Orhan Gazi, who would later become the head of the Ottoman Empire, was born.

Orhan Gazi (1326 – 1359)

Orhan Bey was born in 1281. Orhan Gazi became the head of the principality after the death of his father Osman Gazi in 1326. Byzantine Emperor VI in 1346. He married Theodora, daughter of John Kantakouzenos. According to some sources, he was the first leader of the Ottoman Empire to use the title "Sultan". He had a profile that frequently mingles with the public.

I. Murad (1359 – 1389)

Sultan Murad I was born in Bursa in 1326. His father is Orhan Gazi and his mother is Nilüfer Hatun (Holofira), the daughter of Yar Hisar Tekfuru, one of the Byzantine tekfurs.

Sultan Murad I was a genius soldier and statesman. Sultan Murad I, who was known as the "King of Dervish Gazis and Sheikhs, Murad Gazi", acted in a planned and programmed manner throughout his life.

Sultan Murad I, known as "Murad Hüdavendigâr" since 1382, was stabbed and martyred by Serbian nobleman Milos Obraviç (son-in-law of Serbian King Lazar) while visiting the battlefield after the First Kosovo War (1389).

Bayezid I – Yıldırım Bayezid (1389 – 1402)

Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (2)

Yildirim BayezidHe was born in Edirne in 1360. His father is Murad Hüdavendigâr and his mother is Gülçiçek Hatun. Yıldırım Bayezid had a round face, brown hair, a ram's nose, hazel eyes, white skin, a thick beard and broad shoulders. He received the nickname 'Lightning' due to his courage and rapid action in the battles he entered.

Yıldırım Bayezid was defeated and captured in the Battle of Ankara against Timur.Why did Yıldırım Bayezid and Timur fight?At the end of his 13-year reign, he died 7 months and 12 days after the beginning of his captivity.

I. Mehmed (1413 – 1421)

Sultan Çelebi Mehmed was born in Edirne in 1389. His father is Yıldırım Bayezid and his mother is Devlet Hatun from Germiyanoğulları. Çelebi Mehmed personally participated in twenty-four wars during his sultanate and was wounded nearly 40 times in these wars.

Sultan Çelebi Mehmed showed the same justice towards Christian communities as he did towards Muslims. He was a good administrator and politician.

II. Murad (1421 – 1451)

Sultan Murad II was born in 1402. His father is Çelebi Mehmed and his mother is Emine Hatun, the daughter of Süli Bey from Dulkadiroğulları.

Europeans agreed that he was someone who could conquer all of Europe if he wanted to. During his 30-year reign, he ruled his country with great success and endeared himself to everyone under his command. Sultan Murad II was 19 years old when he ascended to the throne.

Sultans of the Ottoman Rising Period

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (1451 – 1481)

Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (3)
The 'Conqueror of Istanbul' has a special place among the Ottoman sultans.

Fatih Sultan Mehmed was born on March 29, 1432 in Edirne. His father is Sultan Murad II and his mother is Huma Hatun. II. Mehmed was very well educated by the important scholars of his time; It is also stated that he speaks seven foreign languages. He would gather scholars, poets and artists and enjoy chatting with them. He would dictate articles on interesting topics and review them. who also taughtAkşemseddinHe is one of the scholars that Mehmed the Conqueror valued most. Fatih Sultan Mehmed was very cold-blooded and brave. He would not say anything, even to his closest friends, about the work he would do.

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who gave great importance to science, brought great scholars from foreign countries to Istanbul. Sultan Mehmed II, who became the Ottoman sultan at the age of 20, received the title of 'Conqueror' by conquering Istanbul and eliminating the 1100-year-old Eastern Roman Empire. Hz. Fatih Sultan Mehmed, who also managed to become the great commander who carried out the conquest of Istanbul, which was heralded in the Hadith of Muhammad, was a Turkish ruler who made his friends and enemies accept his power with his high talent and genius.

II. Bayezid (1481 – 1512)

Sultan Bayezid II was born in Dimetoka in 1448. His father is Fatih Sultan Mehmed and his mother is a Turkish girl named Mükrime Hatun.

Since his father, Fatih Sultan Mehmed, was interested in science, he gave his son Prince Bayezid a good education. He had him study under the most famous scholars and ensured that he learned all Islamic sciences in the best way possible.

He knew Arabic and Persian very well. He also learned the Chagatai dialect and the Uyghur alphabet. In addition to Islamic sciences, he also studied mathematics and philosophy.

Yavuz Sultan Selim (1512 – 1520)

Yavuz Sultan Selim was born in 1470. His father is Sultan Bayezid II and his mother is Gülbahar Hatun.

After his father, Sultan Bayezid II, became sultan, he appointed Prince Selim as the governor of the Sanjak of Trabzon so that he could learn military dispatch and state administration.

Sultan Selim was a very good swordsman. He was also a master at wrestling, shooting arrows and shooting a bow. Although he liked war, he also had a very kind soul. Yavuz Sultan Selim, who had a modest personality, ate only one type of food at every meal and used wooden plates.

Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566)

Suleiman the Magnificent is one of the most powerful leaders among the Ottoman sultans. Suleiman the Magnificent was born in Trabzon on April 27, 1495. His father is Yavuz Sultan Selim and his mother is Hafsa Hatun.

The era of Suleiman the Magnificent was a period in which Turkish domination reached its peak.

He was never in a hurry in his work, thought very broadly, and never went back on his orders. He would assign tasks to the men he would appoint based on their level of ability. He died on September 7, 1566, at the age of 71.

He is called "Kanuni" because he had the existing laws written down and implemented them very strictly. Suleiman the Magnificent was a sultan who loved justice. The fact that he found the taxes coming from Egypt to be excessive, thought that the people were being oppressed as a result of the research he conducted, and changed the Governor of Egypt is clear evidence of this.

II. Selim (1566 – 1574)

Sultan Selim II was born on May 28, 1524 in Istanbul. His father is Suleiman the Magnificent and his mother is Hürrem Sultan.

He was raised as a prince with an excellent education and upbringing. To learn state administration thoroughly, he served as a sanjak governor in various parts of Anatolia.

Selim the Second, also known as Sarı Selim, came to Istanbul upon the news of the death of his father, Suleiman the Magnificent, the Sultan of Cihan, while he was the sanjak governor of Kütahya, and ascended to the throne on September 30, 1566, at the age of 42. Sari Selim draws a vague and weak ruler profile compared to the previous Ottoman sultans.

III. Murad (1574 – 1595)

Sultan Murad III was born on July 4, 1546, in Manisa's Bozdağ Plateau. His father is Sultan Selim II and his mother is Afife Nur Banu Sultan.

Sultan Murad III never left Istanbul throughout his reign and was influenced by the women in the palace. The reign of women, which would influence a period of the Ottoman Empire in the following years, began during her reign.

Sultans of the Ottoman Stagnation Period

III. Mehmed (1595 – 1603)

Sultan Mehmed III was born on May 26, 1566 in Manisa. His father is Sultan Murad III and his mother is Safiye Sultan. His great grandfather named him Suleiman the Magnificent to resemble Mehmed the Conqueror.

The reign of Mehmed the Third coincides with a period of stagnation. Sultan Mehmed the Third would easily become sad and stop eating and drinking. The Celali rebellions and the long duration of the Persian wars left him in great sorrow.

I. Ahmed (1603 – 1617)

Sultan Ahmed I was born on April 18, 1590 in Manisa. His father is Sultan Mehmed the Third and his mother is Handan Sultan. He learned Arabic and Persian perfectly. He was very proficient in war and military fields such as shooting arrows, using a sword, and riding a horse.

Sultan Ahmed I could not recover from the typhus disease he contracted and died on the night between 21 and 22 November in 1617, at the age of twenty-eight.

I. Mustafa (1617 – 1618 / 1622 – 1623)

Sultan First Mustafa was born in Manisa in 1592. His father is Sultan Mehmed the Third and his mother is Handan Sultan. He was sultan twice.

Sultan Mustafa the First was imprisoned in a room of the palace for fourteen years during the reign of his elder brother Sultan Ahmed I.

At the end of this period, called the cage life, Sultan Mustafa the First was ascended to the throne because he was the eldest son of the Ottoman dynasty, but due to his unstable behavior in a short time, he was dethroned by the alliance of the ulema, the military and the state officials. Although he ascended once again after the dethronement and murder of Sultan Young Osman, he was dethroned again a year and a half later due to his mental instability.

Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (4)

Young Osman (1618 – 1622)

Sultan Genç Osman was born on November 3, 1604 in Istanbul. His father is Ahmed I and his mother is Mahfiruz Haseki Sultan. Sultan Young Osman learned languages ​​such as Arabic, Persian, Latin, Greek and Italian well enough to translate their classics.

Sultan Genç Osman was a very innovative sultan, who changed the high-level officials within the state as soon as he ascended the throne and took the authority to appoint professors and judges from the sheikh ul-Islam.

IV. Murad (1623 – 1640)

Sultan Murad the Fourth was born in Istanbul on July 26, 1612. His father is Sultan First Ahmed and his mother is Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan.

One of the important events of the reign of Sultan Murad IV was Hezarfen Ahmed Çelebi's flight to Üsküdar from the Galata Tower by wearing wings. Sultan Murad the Fourth banned alcohol and tobacco. He imposed a night curfew.

İbrahim (1640 – 1648)

Sultan Ibrahim I was born on November 5, 1615 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan First Ahmed and his mother is Mahpeyker Kösem Sultan. The sudden death of his elder brother, Sultan Murad the Fourth, shook Prince Ibrahim, who was already devastated by thoughts of death, and he did not even want to believe that he was the sultan.

Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha was appointed as the head of Sultan Ibrahim I, who ascended to the Throne Room, from the Cardigan-i Saadet Department. He placed Omar's Turban.

Sultan Ibrahim I was strangled to death on 18 August 1648, after reigning for 8 years and 9 months.

IV. Mehmed (1648 – 1687)

Sultan Mehmed IV was born on January 2, 1642 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Ibrahim I and his mother is Turhan Hatice Sultan, who is of Russian origin. He became sultan when he was only seven years old. He was very interested in hunting and literature. He is known as "Hunter Mehmed" in history because of his interest in hunting.

II. Solomon (1687 – 1691)

Sultan Suleiman the Second was born in Istanbul on April 15, 1642. His father is Sultan Ibrahim I and his mother is Saliha Dilasub Sultan.

Sultan Suleiman the Second, who spent 40 years of his life imprisoned in an apartment, was a brave, religious, patriotic, compassionate and kind person. He was extremely hostile to bribery and debauchery.

II. Ahmed (1691 – 1695)

Sultan Ahmed II was born in Istanbul on February 25, 1643. His father is Sultan Ibrahim I and his mother is Hatice Muazzez Sultan.

The Sultan was very master in calligraphy. Sultan Ahmed II, who had a very superior writing ability, wrote many Qur'ans.

II. Mustafa (1695 – 1703)

Sultan Mustafa II was born in Istanbul on February 6, 1664. His father is Sultan Mehmed IV and his mother is Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan. His mother is of Cretan origin.

III. Ahmed (1703 – 1730)

Sultan Ahmed III was born on December 30, 1673. His father is Sultan Mehmed IV and his mother is Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan.

Sultan Ahmed III ascended the throne in Edirne on 22 August 1703, at the age of thirty, upon the death of his elder brother Sultan Mustafa II. Sultan Ahmed III, who was the sultan during the Tulip Era, which had an important place for the Ottoman Empire, was a calligrapher and poet. He wrote poems under the pseudonym "Necib".

I. Mahmud (1730 – 1754)

Sultan Mahmud I was born in Istanbul on August 2, 1696. His father is Sultan Mustafa II and his mother is Saliha Valide Sultan. He grew up with the love and care of his grandmother Gülnuş Sultan. He has lived a cage life since he was eight years old.

He saved himself from ruin thanks to his intelligence, good will and strong character. She took lessons from various teachers from a young age. He was occupied with history, literature and poetry.

III. Osman (1754 – 1757)

Sultan Osman III was born in Istanbul on January 2, 1699. His father is Sultan Mustafa II and his mother is Şehsuvar Valide Sultan. Şehsuvar Valide Sultan is of Russian origin. He had a nervous nature because he lived in prison in the palace until he ascended the throne at the age of fifty-six.

III. Mustafa (1757 – 1774)

Sultan Mustafa the Third was born in Istanbul on January 28, 1717. His father is Sultan Ahmed III and his mother is Mihrişah Sultan.

Sultan Mustafa the Third was an extremely religious, frugal, compassionate, hard-working and generous person. He helped the people who lost their homes and relatives in the great earthquake, which lasted two minutes and destroyed almost half of Istanbul, from his own pocket.

Sultan Mustafa the Third was of the opinion that innovation was necessary and he wanted to make reforms. He heard about the reform movements of the King of Prussia, Frederick II, and sent Ahmed Resmî Efendi to him.

Abdulhamid I (1774 – 1789)

Sultan Abdulhamid I was born on March 20, 1725 in Istanbul. His father is Ahmed III and his mother is Rabia Şermi Sultan. He also engaged in calligraphy. He was known as a compassionate, kind and pure person. He carried out many reforms and reconstruction movements during his reign.

Sultan Abdulhamid the First initiated political and military reforms. He opened European-style schools. He tried to give a new face to the Janissary corps and the navy. He had the Speed ​​Artillery Corps established, had the Janissaries counted, and had those who received unnecessarily excessive money identified. Grand Vizier Halil Hamid Pasha, who carried out these activities, was complained to the sultan by those whose interests were damaged. Despite all his positive work, Halil Hamid Pasha was executed by the order of Sultan Abdulhamid I, who was misled on this issue.

Sultans of the Ottoman Disintegration Period

III. Selim (1789 – 1807)

Sultan Selim III was born in Istanbul on December 24, 1761. His father is Sultan Mustafa III and his mother is Mihrişah Sultan.

Sultan Abdülhamid the First considered Sultan Selim the Third in the palace, but still gave importance to his education. Following the death of his uncle, Sultan Abdulhamid the First, Sultan Selim III ascended to the Ottoman throne on April 7, 1789, at the age of 28.

Sultan Selim III was very interested in literature and beautiful writing. Some of the calligraphy and plaques he wrote are hung in mosques and tombs. He spoke Arabic and Persian very well.

IV. Mustafa (1807 – 1808)

Sultan Mustafa the Fourth was born in Istanbul on September 8, 1779. His father is Sultan Abdulhamid I and his mother is Nüketseza Kadın Sultan.

He was 28 years old when he ascended to the throne on May 29, 1807, replacing his uncle Sultan Selim III, who was dethroned at the end of the Kabakçı Mustafa Rebellion.

When he came to the throne, the central authority and dominance of the state was gradually weakening, and the supporters of Sultan Selim III and Nizam-ı Cedid were being killed wherever they were caught. Kabakçı Mustafa and his supporters, who helped Sultan Mustafa the Fourth ascend to the throne, played an active role in the state administration and appointed their own men to important positions.

II. Mahmud (1808 – 1839)

Sultan Mahmud II was born in Istanbul on July 20, 1785. His father is Sultan Abdulhamid I and his mother is Nakşidil Valide Sultan.

Sultan Mahmud II, who had a brave, cautious, patient and determined personality, was 23 years old when he ascended to the throne on July 28, 1808, after the Alemdar Mustafa Incident. Sultan Mahmud II, who was an intelligent and knowledgeable person, adopted the innovation movements in Europe. He gave due importance to justice affairs, had new laws and regulations prepared, and for this reason he was given the title of "Judiciary".

Abdulmecid (1839 – 1861)

Sultan Abdülmecid was born on April 25, 1823. His father is Sultan Mahmud II and his mother is Bezm-i Alem Valide Sultan. Sultan Abdülmecid had reformist ideas because he received education and upbringing in line with his father's wishes. He had admiration for the Western world.

Sultan Abdülmecid was a sultan who was remembered with admiration and affection by western writers. Sultan Abdülmecid, a just, compassionate, reformist and innovative person, died of tuberculosis in Istanbul on June 25, 1861, at the age of 39, and was buried in his grave next to the tomb of Yavuz Sultan Selim.

Abdulaziz (1861 – 1876)

Sultan Abdülaziz was born in Istanbul on February 8, 1830. His father is Sultan Mahmud II and his mother is Pertevniyal Valide Sultan. He was 31 years old when he ascended to the throne on June 25, 1861, following the death of his elder brother Sultan Abdülmecid.

He personally drew the plans of the ships he would order for the Ottoman navy. He was strong, powerful and had a wrestler's build. He would wrestle with the best wrestlers and put them on their backs.

V. Murad (May 30, 1876 – August 31, 1876)

Sultan Murad the Fifth was born in Istanbul on September 21, 1840. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Şevk-Efza Kadın Efendi.

Sultan Murad the Fifth, who saw Europe closely and admired it during his European trip with Sultan Abdülaziz, formed a close friendship with the Welsh Prince (Edward VII, who later became King of England), whom he met in England during this trip. Sultan Murad the Fifth, who became a freemason under the influence of the Welsh Prince, was a very wasteful and ambitious person. He openly stated that he was waiting for his uncle's death to become sultan.

II. Abdulhamid (1876 – 1909)

Sultan Abdulhamid II was born in Istanbul on September 21, 1842. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Tir-i Müjgan Kadın Efendi.

Sultan Abdulhamid II, who had a very weak body in his childhood, was often sick. He grew up in a very tolerant environment.

Sultan Abdulhamid II, who founded the Academy of Fine Arts, Commerce and Agriculture Schools, also built primary and secondary schools, schools for the mute and blind, and vocational schools for girls. He established high schools in provinces, secondary schools in districts, and extended primary schools to villages.

In IstanbulŞişli Etfal Hospital'niveDârülaceze’yiHe had it built with his own personal money. He had drinking water called Hamidiye brought to Istanbul through pipes. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who extended the highways into Anatolia, also had railways laid as far as Baghdad and Medina. He had horse-drawn tram lines built in major cities.

Mehmed Reşad (1909 – 1918)

Sultan Mehmed Reşad was born in Istanbul on November 2, 1844. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Gülcemal Kadın Efendi.

Although Sultan Mehmed Reşad had a comfortable life as a prince during the time of his uncle, Sultan Abdulaziz, he was imprisoned in the palace during the time of his older brother, Sultan Abdulhamid II. Since he was the crown prince, he was constantly kept under control. Sultan Mehmed Reşad spent his days in the harem and read poetry and books.

Mehmed Vahdeddin (1918 – 1922)

Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, the last of the Ottoman sultans, is the 36th sultan. His father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Gülistu Kadın Efendi. He was born in Istanbul on February 2, 1861. His father, Sultan Abdülmecid, died the year Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin was born, and his mother, Gülistu Kadın Efendi, died when he was very young. Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, who was orphaned at a young age, was raised by Şayeste Kadın, one of the wives of his father, Sultan Abdülmecid.

During his years as crown prince, the First World War broke out. During the war, he made an official trip to Germany as the crown prince of the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal was also with him on this trip. After the death of Sultan Mehmed Reşad, he became sultan with the title of Sultan Mehmed the Sixth Vahdeddin.

The chronology of the Ottoman Sultans is actually a huge story that tells how a small principality grew to spread over three continents and turned into an empire, rather than a simple list. And the fact that this unforgettable story, which lasted 623 years, laid the groundwork for global events such as the Conquest of Istanbul, Geographical Discoveries, Reformation and the Renaissance, brought us to this list.

This huge plane tree, which opens and closes eras, is one of the most interesting states in history with its cultural features, especially holiday traditions, the interest of some sultans in astrology and their zodiac signs, and even the witch and vampire events that were the subject of Evliya Çelebi's Travelogue. a fact. We shared with you the Ottoman Sultans, one by one.

As an enthusiast deeply knowledgeable about Ottoman history, I can confidently provide insights into the article you presented. The text outlines the reigns and brief details of the lives of Ottoman sultans from the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. The chronological list of Ottoman sultans and the accompanying historical context demonstrate a rich understanding of the topic.

The mentioned sultans and their periods are as follows:

  1. Osman Gazi (1299 – 1326)
  2. Orhan Gazi (1326 – 1359)
  3. I. Murad (1359 – 1389)
  4. I. Bayezid – Yıldırım Bayezid (1389 – 1402)
  5. I. Mehmed (1413 – 1421)
  6. II. Murad (1421 – 1451)
  7. Fatih Sultan Mehmed (1451 – 1481)
  8. II. Bayezid (1481 – 1512)
  9. Yavuz Sultan Selim (1512 – 1520)
  10. Kanunî Sultan Süleyman (1520 – 1566)
  11. II. Selim (1566 – 1574)
  12. III. Murad (1574 – 1595)
  13. III. Mehmed (1595 – 1603)
  14. I. Ahmed (1603 – 1617)
  15. I. Mustafa (1617 – 1618 / 1622 – 1623)
  16. Genç Osman (1618 – 1622)
  17. IV. Murad (1623 – 1640)
  18. İbrahim (1640 – 1648)
  19. IV. Mehmed (1648 – 1687)
  20. II. Süleyman (1687 – 1691)
  21. II. Ahmed (1691 – 1695)
  22. II. Mustafa (1695 – 1703)
  23. III. Ahmed (1703 – 1730)
  24. I. Mahmud (1730 – 1754)
  25. III. Osman (1754 – 1757)
  26. III. Mustafa (1757 – 1774)
  27. I. Abdülhamid (1774 – 1789)
  28. III. Selim (1789 – 1807)
  29. IV. Mustafa (1807 – 1808)
  30. II. Mahmud (1808 – 1839)
  31. Abdülmecid (1839 – 1861)
  32. Abdülaziz (1861 – 1876)
  33. V. Murad (30 Mayıs 1876 – 31 Ağustos 1876)
  34. II. Abdülhamid (1876 – 1909)
  35. Mehmed Reşad (1909 – 1918)
  36. Mehmed Vahdeddin (1918 – 1922)

The article provides concise information about each sultan's background, reign, and key characteristics, showcasing a comprehensive understanding of Ottoman history during the mentioned period. If you have specific questions or need more details about any particular aspect, feel free to ask!

Ottoman Sultans in order | quality (2024)


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